European countries from Denmark to Greece announced new restrictions to curb surging coronavirus infections in some of their largest cities, while Britain imposing new restrictions lasting probably six months.
Cases in the United Kingdom almost doubled to 6,000 per day in the latest reporting week, hospital admissions rose and infection rates soared across parts of northern England and London.
In Spain, which has seen more cases than any other European country, the region including the Spanish capital Madrid will limit movement between and within areas badly affected by a new surge in infections, affecting more than 850,000 people.
In Greece, which emerged largely unscathed from the first wave of COVID-19 which hit Europe in March and April, Prime Minister Kyriakos Mitsotakis said the government was ready to tighten restrictions in the greater Athens area as cases accelerated.
In Paris, among the measures planned are a ban on public gatherings of more than 10 people while attendance at major events could be limited to 1,000 people from the 5,000 allowed now.
Europe is still hoping not to follow the example of Israel, which entered a second nationwide lockdown at the onset of the Jewish high holiday season, following a jump in new coronavirus cases.